Testicular cancer

Image Caption : Male Pelvis Showing Drainage of Cyst in Testicle: Three-dimensional visualization reconstructed from scanned human data. Anteriolateral view of microsurgical technique for varicoceles of the spermatic cord and drainage of paratesticular cysts. Also shown is the testes penis pelvis and bladder. Varicoceles are varicose veins of the spermatic cord-the structure that supports the testes inside the scrotum. Varicoceles are most commonly found in young men between the ages of 15 and 25. They tend to be located on the left side of the scrotum are usually minor and can be managed with the use of a scrotal support. In more serious cases lack of sufficient blood flow to the testes can result in testicular atrophy and infertility. Microsurgery is an option for the repair of varicoceles. Paratesticular cysts are tumors that occur inside the scrotum but not on the testes themselves; they are very common often asymptomatic and almost always benign. Paratesticular cysts can involve the outer covering of the testes the epididymis and the spermatic cord and are easily mistaken for cancerous lumps. A thorough examination by a physician should be performed to rule out serious disease.

Testicular Cancer

Testicles, or testes, make male hormones and sperm. They are two egg-shaped organs inside the scrotum, the loose sac of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles.

Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of 20 and 39. It is also more common in men who

  • Have had abnormal testicle development
  • Have had an undescended testicle
  • Have a family history of the cancer

Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your testicles or groin area. Doctors use a physical exam, lab tests, imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose testicular cancer. Most cases can be treated, especially if found early. Treatment options include surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy. Regular exams after treatment are important.

Treatments may also cause infertility. If you may want children later on, you should consider sperm banking before treatment.

NIH: National Cancer Institute

Testicular cancer is cancer that develops in the testicles, a part of the male reproductive system.

Not all lumps on the testicles are tumors, and not all tumors are cancer. There are many other conditions, such as testicular microlithiasis, epididymal cysts, and appendix testis (hydatid of Morgagni), which may be painful but are non-cancerous.

Testicular cancer has one of the highest cure rates of all cancers with an average five-year survival rate of 95%. If the cancer has not spread outside the testicle, the 5-year survival is 99% while if it has grown into nearby structures or has spread to nearby lymph nodes, the rate is 96% and if it has spread to organs or lymph nodes away from the testicles, the 5-year survival is around 74%. Even for the relatively few cases in which cancer has spread widely, chemotherapy offers a cure rate of at least 80%.

Globally testicular cancer resulted in 8,300 deaths in 2013 up from 7,000 deaths in 1990. In the United States, about 8,000 cases are diagnosed a year. In the UK, approximately 2,000 people are diagnosed each year, over a lifetime, the risk of testicular cancer is roughly 1 in 200 (0.5%). It is the most common cancer in males aged 20–39 years, the period when it is most common to start, and is rarely seen before the age of 15 years.

Testicular cancer, cryptorchidism, hypospadias and poor semen quality make up the syndrome known as testicular dysgenesis syndrome.

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