Neurotransmitter Reuptake Inhibitor : The SNRIs take advantage of serotonin's positive effects, plus add in benefits from blocking the reuptake of norepinephrine. These medications have been available since the early 1990s, and, like the SSRIs, are generously better tolerated, and safer in overdose than the tricyclics.
A reuptake inhibitor (RI) is a type of reuptake modulator which inhibits the plasmalemmal transporter-mediated reuptake of a neurotransmitter from the synapse into the pre-synaptic neuron, leading to an increase in the extracellular concentrations of the neurotransmitter and therefore an increase in neurotransmission. Various drugs utilize reuptake inhibition to exert their psychological and physiological effects, including many antidepressants and psychostimulants.
Most known reuptake inhibitors affect the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine (and epinephrine), and dopamine. However there are also a number of pharmaceuticals and research chemicals that act as reuptake inhibitors for other neurotransmitters such as glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine, adenosine, choline (the precursor of acetylcholine), and the endocannabinoids, among others.
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