human female reproductive system


Image Caption : Female Reproductive Organ: Computer generated image reconstructed from scanned human data. This image presents a frontal view of primary components of the human female reproductive system. In the center is the uterus, an oval-shaped structure, highlighted in purple. The uterus opens into the vagina, indicated as the light brownish-purple structure extending from below the uterus. The two highlighted yellow regions on the left and right sides of the uterus are the ovaries containing eggs, or oocytes, the female sex cells. The oocytes are released from the ovaries and travel through the fallopian tubes, the pink tube-like structures observed in this image. When fertilization occurs, the fertilized egg will implant itself to the wall of uterus where embryonic development can begin. If fertilization does not occur, menstruation ensues.

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Illustration of the organs of the female reproductive system

The organs of the female reproductive system produce and sustain the female sex cells (egg cells or ova), transport these cells to a site where they may be fertilized by sperm, provide a favorable environment for the developing fetus, move the fetus to the outside at the end of the development period, and produce the female sex hormones. The female reproductive system includes the ovaries, Fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, accessory glands, and external genital organs.

  • Ovaries
  • Genital Tract
  • External Genitalia
  • Female Sexual Response and Hormonal Control
  • Mammary Glands

INTRODUCTION TO THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

The major function of the reproductive system is to ensure survival of the species. Other systems in the body, such as the endocrine and urinary systems, work continuously to maintain homeostasis for survival of the individual. An individual may live a long, healthy, and happy life without producing offspring, but if the species is to continue, at least some individuals must produce offspring.

Within the context of producing offspring, the reproductive system has four functions:

  • To produce egg and sperm cells
  • To transport and sustain these cells
  • To nurture the developing offspring
  • To produce hormones

These functions are divided between the primary and secondary, or accessory, reproductive organs. The primary reproductive organs, or gonads, consist of the ovaries and testes. These organs are responsible for producing the egg and sperm cells gametes), and hormones. These hormones function in the maturation of the reproductive system, the development of sexual characteristics, and regulation of the normal physiology of the reproductive system. All other organs, ducts, and glands in the reproductive system are considered secondary, or accessory, reproductive organs. These structures transport and sustain the gametes and nurture the developing offspring.

National Cancer Institute / NIH

Female reproductive system

The female reproductive system functions to produce gametes and reproductive hormones, just like the male reproductive system; however, it also has the additional task of supporting the developing fetus and delivering it to the outside world. Unlike its male counterpart, the female reproductive system is located primarily inside the pelvic cavity (Figure). Recall that the ovaries are the female gonads. The gamete they produce is called an oocyte. We'll discuss the production of oocytes in detail shortly. First, let's look at some of the structures of the female reproductive system.

Female Reproductive System

This figure shows the structure and the different organs in the female reproductive system. The top panel shows the lateral view and the bottom panel shows the anterior view.

The major organs of the female reproductive system are located inside the pelvic cavity.

Glossary

alveoli

(of the breast) milk-secreting cells in the mammary gland

ampulla

(of the uterine tube) middle portion of the uterine tube in which fertilization often occurs

antrum

fluid-filled chamber that characterizes a mature tertiary (antral) follicle

areola

highly pigmented, circular area surrounding the raised nipple and containing areolar glands that secrete fluid important for lubrication during suckling

Bartholin's glands

(also, greater vestibular glands) glands that produce a thick mucus that maintains moisture in the vulva area; also referred to as the greater vestibular glands

body of uterus

middle section of the uterus

broad ligament

wide ligament that supports the uterus by attaching laterally to both sides of the uterus and pelvic wall

cervix

elongate inferior end of the uterus where it connects to the vagina

clitoris

(also, glans clitoris) nerve-rich area of the vulva that contributes to sexual sensation during intercourse

corpus albicans

nonfunctional structure remaining in the ovarian stroma following structural and functional regression of the corpus luteum

corpus luteum

transformed follicle after ovulation that secretes progesterone

endometrium

inner lining of the uterus, part of which builds up during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle and then sheds with menses

fimbriae

fingerlike projections on the distal uterine tubes

follicle

ovarian structure of one oocyte and surrounding granulosa (and later theca) cells

folliculogenesis

development of ovarian follicles from primordial to tertiary under the stimulation of gonadotropins

fundus

(of the uterus) domed portion of the uterus that is superior to the uterine tubes

granulosa cells

supportive cells in the ovarian follicle that produce estrogen

hymen

membrane that covers part of the opening of the vagina

infundibulum

(of the uterine tube) wide, distal portion of the uterine tube terminating in fimbriae

isthmus

narrow, medial portion of the uterine tube that joins the uterus

labia majora

hair-covered folds of skin located behind the mons pubis

labia minora

thin, pigmented, hairless flaps of skin located medial and deep to the labia majora

lactiferous ducts

ducts that connect the mammary glands to the nipple and allow for the transport of milk

lactiferous sinus

area of milk collection between alveoli and lactiferous duct

mammary glands

glands inside the breast that secrete milk

menarche

first menstruation in a pubertal female

menses

shedding of the inner portion of the endometrium out though the vagina; also referred to as menstruation

menses phase

phase of the menstrual cycle in which the endometrial lining is shed

menstrual cycle

approximately 28-day cycle of changes in the uterus consisting of a menses phase, a proliferative phase, and a secretory phase

mons pubis

mound of fatty tissue located at the front of the vulva

myometrium

smooth muscle layer of uterus that allows for uterine contractions during labor and expulsion of menstrual blood

oocyte

cell that results from the division of the oogonium and undergoes meiosis I at the LH surge and meiosis II at fertilization to become a haploid ovum

oogenesis

process by which oogonia divide by mitosis to primary oocytes, which undergo meiosis to produce the secondary oocyte and, upon fertilization, the ovum

oogonia

ovarian stem cells that undergo mitosis during female fetal development to form primary oocytes

ovarian cycle

approximately 28-day cycle of changes in the ovary consisting of a follicular phase and a luteal phase

ovaries

female gonads that produce oocytes and sex steroid hormones (notably estrogen and progesterone)

ovulation

release of a secondary oocyte and associated granulosa cells from an ovary

ovum

haploid female gamete resulting from completion of meiosis II at fertilization

perimetrium

outer epithelial layer of uterine wall

polar body

smaller cell produced during the process of meiosis in oogenesis

primary follicles

ovarian follicles with a primary oocyte and one layer of cuboidal granulosa cells

primordial follicles

least developed ovarian follicles that consist of a single oocyte and a single layer of flat (squamous) granulosa cells

proliferative phase

phase of the menstrual cycle in which the endometrium proliferates

rugae

(of the vagina) folds of skin in the vagina that allow it to stretch during intercourse and childbirth

secondary follicles

ovarian follicles with a primary oocyte and multiple layers of granulosa cells

secretory phase

phase of the menstrual cycle in which the endometrium secretes a nutrient-rich fluid in preparation for implantation of an embryo

suspensory ligaments

bands of connective tissue that suspend the breast onto the chest wall by attachment to the overlying dermis

tertiary follicles

(also, antral follicles) ovarian follicles with a primary or secondary oocyte, multiple layers of granulosa cells, and a fully formed antrum

theca cells

estrogen-producing cells in a maturing ovarian follicle

uterine tubes

(also, fallopian tubes or oviducts) ducts that facilitate transport of an ovulated oocyte to the uterus

uterus

muscular hollow organ in which a fertilized egg develops into a fetus

vagina

tunnel-like organ that provides access to the uterus for the insertion of semen and from the uterus for the birth of a baby

vulva

external female genitalia

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The female reproductive system (or female genital system) is made up of the internal and external sex organs that function in human reproduction. The female reproductive system is immature at birth and develops to maturity at puberty to be able to produce gametes, and to carry a fetus to full term. The internal sex organs are the uterus and Fallopian tubes, and the ovaries. The uterus or womb accommodates the embryo which develops into the fetus. The uterus also produces vaginal and uterine secretions which help the transit of sperm to the Fallopian tubes. The ovaries produce the ova (egg cells). The external sex organs are also known as the genitals and these are the organs of the vulva including the labia, clitoris and vaginal opening. The vagina is connected to the uterus at the cervix.

At certain intervals, the ovaries release an ovum, which passes through the Fallopian tube into the uterus. If, in this transit, it meets with sperm, a single sperm can enter and merge with the egg, fertilizing it. The corresponding equivalent among males is the male reproductive system.

Fertilization usually occurs in the Fallopian tubes and marks the beginning of embryogenesis. The zygote will then divide over enough generations of cells to form a blastocyst, which implants itself in the wall of the uterus. This begins the period of gestation and the embryo will continue to develop until full-term. When the fetus has developed enough to survive outside the uterus, the cervix dilates and contractions of the uterus propel the newborn through the birth canal (the vagina).



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