Colon cancer staging

Stages of Colorectal Cancer (Summary Staging)

  • Stage 0: Cancer is confined to inner lining of the colon wall (the mucosa).
  • Stage I: Cancer has spread beyond the mucosa to the middle layers of the colon wall.
  • Stage II: Cancer has spread beyond the colon's middle layers and possibly into nearby organs, but hasn't spread to lymph nodes.
  • Stage III: Cancer has spread to lymph nodes, but not to other parts of the body.
  • Stage IV: Cancer has spread to distant areas, like the liver or lungs.

Colorectal Cancer

Also called: Colon cancer, Rectal cancer

The colon and rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of the large intestine. It is common in both men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more likely to get it if you have colorectal polyps, a family history of colorectal cancer, ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, eat a diet high in fat, or smoke.

Symptoms of colorectal cancer include

  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • A feeling that your bowel does not empty completely
  • Blood (either bright red or very dark) in your stool
  • Stools that are narrower than usual
  • Frequent gas pains or cramps, or feeling full or bloated
  • Weight loss with no known reason
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea or vomiting

Because you may not have symptoms at first, it's important to have screening tests. Everyone over 50 should get screened. Tests include colonoscopy and tests for blood in the stool. Treatments for colorectal cancer include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, or a combination. Surgery can usually cure it when it is found early.

NIH: National Cancer Institute

The material on this site is for informational purposes only and is not intended as medical advice. It should not be used to diagnose or treat any medical condition. Consult a licensed medical professional for the diagnosis and treatment of all medical conditions and before starting a new diet or exercise program. If you have a medical emergency, call 911 immediately.