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What Is Type 2 Diabetes?
Go deep inside your body to see how type 2 diabetes happens, what it does to your body—and what you can do about it. Diabetes expert Dr. David Katz of the Yale Prevention Research Center talks about the frightening future of diabetes: in just a few decades, one third of all Americans may have diabetes. See the pancreas, where insulin is produced. Real imaging data reveals the body’s inner anatomy slice by slice, from brain to base of spine. Dr. Cynthia Geyer of Canyon Ranch talks about how insulin resistance develops. View its results, as visceral abdominal fat builds up and chokes the vital organs. Discover the symptoms of type 2 diabetes and find out if you should be tested. See the complications of diabetes, including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, vision damage, kidney disease, and gangrene. The good news? Diabetes is a highly manageable disease. Dr. Mark Liponis of Canyon Ranch talks about controlling your risk for type 2 diabetes and, by managing it, reversing its symptoms and literally slowing the aging process.
Go deep inside your body to see how type 2 diabetes happens, what it does to your body—and what you can do about it.
Blood Glucose and Baselining Your Health
Our bodies and brains run on glucose, a simple sugar produced by the digestion of carbohydrates. The body’s ability to use glucose depends on the hormone insulin, which is produced by the pancreas. Blood sugar levels naturally rise after meals, but insulin from a healthy pancreas keeps these levels within a narrow range. In diabetes, however, this balance is disrupted because either the body loses its ability to respond to insulin or the pancreas loses its ability to produce insulin. Too much or too little glucose in the bloodstream can damage blood vessels in the kidneys and eyes, as well as nerve cells; acute disruptions of the insulin/glucose balance can be life threatening. Blood and urine tests can determine whether someone is diabetic or pre-diabetic. Diabetes is looming as a major public health concern; an estimated 25 million people in the U.S. have diabetes, with more than a quarter of them undiagnosed.
Type 2 Diabetes Testing
An estimated 79 million Americans, just over 25 percent of the population aged 20 years or older, have prediabetes. Prediabetes is a state where blood sugars may be a little bit elevated, but are not yet elevated to a dangerous range. It is typically asymptomatic, and if undiagnosed and untreated, prediabetes may lead to a potentially life-threatening condition called type 2 diabetes. Complications of type 2 diabetes include blindness, heart attack, and stroke. Prediabetes is readily detectable through simple blood testing with a goal of detecting abnormal glucose levels. Two common and complementary tests include fasting blood sugar and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) tests. With early detection and diagnosis, appropriate and immediate action can be made by the patient to reduce complications and to ensure a long and healthy life.
The first step in managing type 2 diabetes is accepting the fact that you have diabetes. Diabetics need to take an active role in managing their condition. Regular doctor visits are a must to check on blood pressure and cholesterol levels and to monitor eye health. Dr. Michael Stein of Brown University talks about stabilizing kidney function. Blood sugar levels need to be monitored using self-testing kits. According to Dr. Osama Hamdy of the Joslin Diabetes Center, the best treatments for type 2 diabetes are diet and exercise, not medications. Cynthia Geyer of Canyon Ranch explains how exercise enables tissues to take up glucose independent of insulin receptors. Eating small sensible meals helps to keep blood sugar levels and weight under control. Losing 7% of body weight can increase insulin sensitivity by 50%--that's equivalent to two diabetes medications at maximum dose. Dr. Mark Liponis of Canyon Ranch tells us the good news about diabetes: we have the ability to improve diabetes, and that isn't true of many conditions.
Pancreatic Beta Cell : SEM generated image of Beta cells. Beta cells are a type of cells found in the pancreas. They produce a hormone called insulin which is responsible for controlling the levels of glucose in the body.
Insulin Receptor and Glucose Pump of Diabetic Person
Our bodies and brains run on glucose, a simple sugar produced by the digestion of carbohydrates. The body's ability to use glucose depends on the hormone insulin, produced by the pancreas. Blood sugar levels naturally rise after meals, but insulin keeps these levels within a narrow range. In diabetes, however, the body loses its ability to respond to insulin or the pancreas loses its ability to produce insulin. Diabetics must maintain normal blood sugar levels through dietary control and insulin injection. Diabetes current affects 25 million Americans; complications include kidney failure, blindness, and amputation.
Glucose Test and Insulin & Glucose : Blood glucose tests can be used to help diagnose diabetes and monitor hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Our bodies and brains run on glucose. Our ability to use glucose as a source of energy depends on the hormone insulin, produced by the pancreas. Levels of insulin and glucose in the blood must be maintained in careful balance. Chronic conditions of too much or too little glucose in the bloodstream can damage the heart, kidneys, eyes, nerves, and blood vessels.
Obese man with visible Anatomy Eating a Cookie : An obese man in a black t-shirt is shown eating a cookie. Some of his anatomy is faintly visible, including his brain, cardiovascular system, pancreas, liver, and adipose tissue. The image introduces a series of facts on the damaging effects of eating too much sugar.
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